From DT Online

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A food which holds worldwide appeal, it is the staff of life to many people, a food which sustains nations.

In Britain during the second world war the loaf of bread became The National Loaf supplying both moral and physical strength for the nations war effort. However you have to go much further back in time to find the origins of the first proper bread.

Bread ingredients - flour Flour provides the basic structure for breads made from milled bread wheat.It contains a high level of gluten which is a muscular substance that strengthens the cellular structure of bread.

An arrow in the hand of death . . . was how one London doctor , James Manning, described bread which contained flour that had been made unpure by rogue bakers. A shortage of flour in the eighteenth century led bakers to add such substances as bone ash and slaked lime to the once healthy flour.

Even without poisonous substances the type of flour used in bread making influences the taste, quality and nutritional value of bread. Wholemeal flour retains the natural goodness of the bran and wheat germ, however you should remember that not all brown breads are made with 100% wholemeal flour, many are, in fact, coloured with caramel.

Recipe for Wholemeal Bread Ingredients:
  • 250g / 1/2lb of wholemeal flour
  • 1 level tsp salt
  • 1/2 oz margarine
  • 1/2 oz fresh yeast
  • 1/4 pt water


  • Oven temperature 230°C, Gas mark 8
  • Grease a small loaf tin
  • Put the flour in a bowl and add the salt and rub in the margarine
  • Add the yeast to the water and stir to dissolve it. Pour into the flour and mix together.
  • Knead firmly for 10 minutes, shape into a loaf
  • Place the dough in the tin and in turn put the tin into a large polythene bag. Leave in a warm place until the dough reaches right up to the top of the tin.
  • Bake for about 40 minutes.
Bread - nutritional value
  • Wholemeal bread: 220 kcal per 100g
  • White bread: 230 kcal per 100g

Because bread plays a major part in our daily diet it is important to eat good bread and as a result wholemeal bread is often favoured above white. The supporters of brown bread rightly inform us that calcium, niacin, riboflavin, iron, nicotinic acid, phosphorus and flourine are all lost along with several vitamins but the dazzling white loaf is seen as being quick and convenient to many people and the new mighty white loaves are thought to combine goodness and convenience.

Indian Bread Along with rice, bread is the most important food in India. Most breads are cooked on top of the stove and are freshly made without using yeast. Nan bread, however, is oven baked and uses yeast.

Chapatis, the most popular type of bread are made as follows:-


  • 200g wholemeal flour
  • 1/2 tsp salt
  • 140 ml warm water
  • a little oil for cooking


  • Mix flour and salt together in a bowl.
  • Add the water and mix into a dough.
  • Pull the mixture into a ball using your fingers and knead until smooth.
  • 30 minutes later cut the dough into six pieces and roll into a circle.
  • Rub a frying pan with oil and heat it until it smokes.
  • Cook the chappatis until brown and puffy.
Bread in Britain The image of the Hovis loaf is not the only image of bread coming from Britain, what about the use of bread in puddings? for snacks? and as the main ingredient for a successful high tea? shortbread, Yorkshire teacakes, barm brack, bread and butter pudding, sandwiches and the spicy Sally Lunn are all an essential part of the country's traditional diet - with all regions contributing to the diversity of bread products; Scotland giving us shortbread and Ireland providing barm brack, a tea bread containing dried fruits.
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The 4th Earl of Sandwich, John Montague, did not invent the sandwich but his demands for sandwiches, when gambling, certainly popularised the food product which is now widely used for snacks and packed lunches. With the new focus on healthy eating more traditional fillings have been replaced with low fat alternatives such as cottage cheese.