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The Romans

From DT Online

Pictures of English History Plate III - The Romans Conquer Britain

The dominance of Ancient Greece in the Mediterranean ended when the Greeks were defeated by Rome at the Battle of Corinth (146 BC) and with emergence of the Roman Empire following the Battle of Actium in 31 BC.


In 43AD and 100 years after two previous occupations, The Romans mounted a major invasion of Britain. The Roman army was extremely well organised and equipped. They were able to overcome Celtic resistance, including a rebellion organised by Boudicca, and over the course of the next 30 years gained control of all England and Wales south of Hadrian's Wall. Some Celts made peace with the Romans, in return for keeping their lands and agreed to obey Rome, but they never conquered Scotland.


The Romans' organisational skills were used also to help administer their Empire, of which Britain was now a part. Many laws and regulations, and the idea of taking a population census, were introduced in Roman times and are still in use today. It was The Romans who added the months of July (named after Julius Ceasar), and August (named after Augustus Ceasar) to create the forerunner of the modern 12 month calendar.


They worshipped various Gods and Goddesses (i.e. Cupid, Diana, Janus, Juno, Jupiter, Mars, Mercury, Minerva, Neptune, Pluto, Venus, Vesta and Vulcan). To appease their Gods, Romans would make offerings of food, flowers or money at Temples and Priests would sometimes make animal sacrifices. In 312AD, Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire.


During their occupation, they continued to be subjected to attacks from tribes north of Hadrian's Wall. Roman Britain was also under regular attack from Angles and Saxons who came across the North Sea from Germany, Denmark and the Netherlands. After some 400 years of occupation, The Romans left Britain in AD410 because they were recalled to Rome to defend their own homes against attacking Barbarians. The people of Britain were told that they no longer had a connection to Rome and that they should defend themselves against the invading Saxons.


The Romans completed many great civic works including roads, bridges, aqueducts, public baths and villas for the more wealthy. To achieve some of this, they invented and used a form of Concrete. Larger villas had a form of under-floor Central Heating and some buildings were decorated with colourful Mosaics on the walls and floors. Trade and industry flourished under Roman rule.


Roman siege machines

A topic on Romans could involve work on a variety of short focussed tasks or design make activities. Most are likely to involve models and might include: