http://wiki.dtonline.org/index.php?title=Special:NewPages&feed=atom&hideredirs=1&limit=50&offset=&namespace=0&username=&tagfilter=&size-mode=max&size=0DT Online - New pages [en-gb]2021-12-08T12:44:21ZFrom DT OnlineMediaWiki 1.35.3http://wiki.dtonline.org/index.php/Dagger_ToolsDagger Tools2021-08-25T11:00:50Z<p>DT Online: Created page with "link=https://www.daggertools.com/ [https://www.daggertools.com/ '''Dagger Tools'''] Dagger Tools is a unique and dynamic brand of shap..."</p>
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<div>[[File:DaggerTools.jpg |700px|right|link=https://www.daggertools.com/]]<br />
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[https://www.daggertools.com/ '''Dagger Tools''']<br />
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Dagger Tools is a unique and dynamic brand of shaping and fabrication tools for metal fabrication and metal shaping since 2004. <br />
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Here at Dagger Tools we have stayed committed to producing a large share of our products right here in our home state of Michigan. And committed to be the very best at what we do, the manufacture of tools for metal shaping and auto body repair and restoration. <br />
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In creating Dagger Tools a seasoned aerospace professional with over 45 years of design, manufacturing and distribution experience in building metal working specialty tools, partnered to enhance existing products and develop new products that meet the needs of today's metal working pro.<br />
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Whether you are a weekend hobbyist, professional fabricator or metal sculptor our tools are suitable for all your shaping needs. Throughout the years we have teamed with several master metal workers worldwide to either help develop their ideas into a marketable product or to continuously improve upon our own initial designs. We provide quality designed tools, inventoried product with the most competitive pricing! <br />
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We can help you with the tough “How to” questions unlike any other manufacture/seller in today’s marketplace.<br />
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[[Category:Secondary]]<br />
[[Category:Web Sites]]<br />
[[Category:Mechanisms]]<br />
[[Category:Electronics and Control]]<br />
[[Category:Structures]]</div>DT Onlinehttp://wiki.dtonline.org/index.php/Early_SurveyingEarly Surveying2021-03-11T14:03:59Z<p>DT Online: </p>
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<div>[[File:UsingGroma.png|400px|right]]<br />
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It is believed that [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stonehenge|'''Stone Henge'''] would have been set out using ropes and pegs and so [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveying||'''Surveying'''] can be thought of as a very ancient craft. Certainly [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Surveying||'''Surveying'''] was very important in '''[[Ancient Egyptian Surveying|Ancient Egypt]]''' both to establish land ownership and to mark out the '''[[Ancient Egyptian Survey Tools|Pyramids]]''' for example.<br />
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[[File:Furlong.png|500px|right]]<br />
In '''[[:Category:Middle Ages|Medieval England]]''' the land was owned by the Lord of the Manor and allocated to families for farming in the form of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ridge_and_furrow|'''Strips''']. Each strip was the length a team of oxen could pull a plough before needing to rest and their width was the distance needed to turn the oxen and plough around to plough in the return direction. ''['''DT Online:''' rather than returning alongside the previous furrow, it seems possible that two adjacent Strips may have been ploughed together - up one Strip and down the other a Strip width away.]''<br />
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This process led to the establishment of agreed land measurements probably based on the '''Roman''' [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rod_(unit)#:~:text=The%20name%20perch%20derives%20from,still%20utilized%20in%20national%20armies.|'''Perch''' or '''Rod'''] since this was so well established by then it was impractical to change it.<br />
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[[File:Medievalplowingwoodcut2.png|400px|right]]<br />
A '''Rod''', '''Pole''' or '''Perch''' is a length measurement (about 5 metres) which was used in land measurement during the '''[[:Category:Middle Ages|Middle Ages]]''' but no longer in widespread use. It is possible that the name comes from the need for a Ploughman to have a long stick with which to control oxen but it is also a similar size to military [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pike_(weapon)|Pikes] or [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pole_weapon|Pole Weapons] used both by the '''[[:Category:The Romans|Romans]]''' and during the '''[[:Category:Middle Ages|Middle Ages]]'''.<br />
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[[File:GuntersChain2.png|200px|right]]<br />
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Open-field_system|'''Medieval Strips'''] for farming were 4 '''Rods''' wide which gave the Oxen enough space to turn round and start the next '''Furrow''' without travelling an unnecessary distance. This measurement became known as a '''Chain''' and was established as a unit of length equal to 66 feet (22 yards). ''['''DT Online:''' Perhaps there was some association with the length of plough chains?]''<br />
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In 1620, [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gunter%27s_chain|'''Edmund Gunter'''] developed an actual measuring chain of 100 links, with brass marker tags every 10 links, and early surveyors used this metal chain, laid out with the help of a compass, to draw plans of areas of land. Although no longer in common use, cricket pitches are still a '''Chain''' (22 yards) long and the distances along a railway are still known as '''Chainage''' – although now measured in metres.<br />
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[[File:ELRPlate.png|100px|right]]<br />
This railway distance marker is found under a bridge at Feltham railway station for example. '''RDG1''' is the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineer%27s_Line_Reference|'''Engineer's Line Reference (ELR)'''] identifying the railway line from Waterloo to Wokingham Junction and gives the distance from Waterloo in '''Miles''' and '''Chains'''. Each distance marker is unique so any location on the railway network can be found using a combination of ELR and mileage.<br />
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A farming strip of land was set to the length of a plough furrow at 10 '''Chains''' (220 yards). Strips were a '''furrow-long''' or '''Furlong''', which is a term still used in horse racing today. Each strip was therefore a '''furrow-long''' and a '''Chain''' wide giving it an area of 220 yards x 22 yards which is the measure of an '''Acre''' (4840 square yards) – ie about half the size of a football pitch. In the UK, the use of the '''Acre''' as the primary unit for land registration was officially replaced by the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hectare|'''Hectare'''] on 1 January 2010.<br />
[[File:Pace.png|200px|right]]<br />
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The word '''Mile''' comes from the Latin '''mille''', meaning thousand, and a mile was 1,000 [[:Category:The Romans|'''Roman''']] '''Paces''' as measured by every other step - i.e. the total distance of the left foot hitting the ground 1,000 times. It is thought that, as the [[:Category:The Romans|'''Romans''']] explored new lands, the marching armies would often push a carved stick in the ground after each 1,000 '''Paces'''. At about the year 1500 the '''Old London Mile''' was defined as eight '''Furlongs''' (furlong = 660 feet). A '''Mile''' is equal to '''5,280 Feet''' or '''1,760 Yards''' or approximately '''1,609 Meters'''.<br />
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<span style="color: blue">'''Activity:'''</span><br />
* <span style="color: blue">Select and mark a starting point in an open space such as a playing field. Count 10 of your own '''Paces''' and mark where you get to. Use a measuring tape to find out how far you have travelled.</span><br />
** <span style="color: blue">How far would you have travelled after 1000 '''Paces'''?</span><br />
** <span style="color: blue">How many '''Paces''' would you have to complete to travel an old '''Mile''' as [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Centurion|'''Roman Centurions'''] once did?</span><br />
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[[Category:Primary]]<br />
[[Category:Topics, Projects and Tasks]]<br />
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[[Category:Measuring and Surveying]]</div>DT Onlinehttp://wiki.dtonline.org/index.php/Metric_System_of_MeasurementMetric System of Measurement2021-03-10T22:08:00Z<p>DT Online: </p>
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<div>[[File:SIbaseunits.png|300px|right]]<br />
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The modern metric system is the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_System_of_Units '''International System of Units'''] ''(French: Système International d'Unités, SI)''. The system was published in 1960 and was based on the metre-kilogram-second system of units (MKS). There are now seven internationally agreed units plus units derived from them to cover all aspects of technology together with a set of [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Metric_prefix#List_of_SI_prefixes '''prefixes'''] which serve as multipliers or fractions of them.<br />
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The idea of Metrication or decimals based units is not new and has obvious attractions with regard to ease of calculation. A '''Furlong''' for example was 10 '''Chains''' long<br />
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By the middle of the 18th Century it had become clear that a simpler and standardised system of measurement was needed to help trade between nations. Around the time of the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/French_Revolution|'''French Revolution'''] measures of length and weight derived from nature were established, along with their decimal multiples and fractions. This became the standard of France and Europe reference a bars of Platinum was made to set the correct length of a Metre.<br />
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Towards the end of the 18th Century [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_metric_system#Late_18th_century:_conflict_and_lassitude|'''James Watt'''] called for a decimal system and in France it was proposed that a Metre could be defined by the length of a pendulum as it beats out 1 second. Unfortunately, this measurement varies a little depending on which country it is done in and although it became standard across Europe both the UK and America were unable to agree to it.<br />
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The Metric system continued to be developed and is now based on fundamental constants of nature such as the speed of light in a vacuum. It was formally defined in French law to form the basis of what eventually became the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_System_of_Units|’’’International System of Units (SI)’’’] which is the only system of measurement with an official status in nearly every country in the world.<br />
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====SI Base Units====<br />
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* The '''Second (s)''' is the base unit of time originally based on the Earth's rotation cycle but but this can vary slightly so is now defined by the behaviour of some atoms to give a more constant value.<br />
* The '''Metre (m)''' is the base unit of length which at one point was based on measurements of the Earth but is now defined by how far light travels in a vacuum in a set time<br />
* The '''Kilogram (kg)''' is the base unit of mass which was originally defined as the mass of one litre of water. This is still quite accurate but now the scientific definition relates it to certain physics constants.<br />
* The '''Ampere (A)''' is the base unit of electric current based on the electrical charge carried by certain atoms.<br />
* '''Kelvin (K)''' is the base unit of temperature and uses absolute zero as its null point. It is often used in conjunction with the degree Celsius, which has the same magnitude.<br />
* The '''Mole (mol)''' is the unit of measurement for amount of substance in a material which is the number of atomic particles. Used mainly by chemists, it is numerically equal to Grams for most practical purposes.<br />
* The '''Candela (cd)''' is the base unit of luminous intensity or the amount of light given out. A common wax candle emits light with a luminous intensity of roughly one Candela and is defined using techniques for electromagnetic radiation.<br />
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From these 7 Base Units other units can be derived from them and defined by them. For example, a '''Newton''' is the measurement of '''Force''' given by the mass of a '''Kilogram''' when acted on by '''acceleration due to gravity'''. For practical purposes, the acceleration due to gravity can be taken as 10m/s2 (should be 9.80665 m/s2) and so a '''Newton''' is approximately 10 x 1Kg. An adult weighs roughly 600N.<br />
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'''Prefixes''' are added to unit names to produce multiples and submultiples of the original unit - e.g. kilometres and millimetres.<br />
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Note: that when a unit is named after a person, its abbreviation is given a capital letter but not when written in full - e.g. N and newton, A and ampere.<br />
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[[Category:Primary]]<br />
[[Category:Topics, Projects and Tasks]]<br />
[[Category:Measuring and Surveying]]</div>DT Onlinehttp://wiki.dtonline.org/index.php/The_Imperial_System_of_MeasurementThe Imperial System of Measurement2021-03-10T20:02:25Z<p>DT Online: </p>
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[[File:Cubit.png|right|600px|Derivation of the Yard and Fathom]]<br />
=====Introduction=====<br />
Exactly how some modern Measurements came about remains open to question but it is clear that it must have always been tempting to use parts of the human body or easily found objects as a starting point.<br />
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Archaeologists believe that the '''[[:Category:Ancient Egypt|Egyptians]]''' preferred the '''Cubit''', the length from elbow to finger tip, whilst the '''[[:Category:The Romans|Romans]]''' and the '''[[:Category:Ancient Greece|Greeks]]''' preferred the '''Foot'''. Even today we may still measure distance by placing one foot in front of another.<br />
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Over the centuries the actual length of each of these varied ''(because people vary)'' but eventually, in Britain at least, some standard lengths were establish by a statute of King Edward I (1272-1307) <br />
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=====Foot=====<br />
The '''[[:Category:Ancient Greece|Greeks']]''' basic measure used the breadth of a finger and calculated a Foot as 16 fingers long. Conveniently this was very approximately equal to the length of an adult foot. The '''[[:Category:The Romans|Romans]]''' adapted this but used the breadth of a thumb which gave 12 divisions and was eventually standardised by [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Marcus_Vipsanius_Agrippa|'''Marcus Agrippa''']. This had the advantage of being easily divided into several different fractions.<br />
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In Britain following the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_Britain|'''Roman occupation'''], the '''Foot''' continued to be used and was defined in law following the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Norman_Conquest|'''Norman Conquest'''] during the 13th Century.<br />
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<span style="color: blue">'''Activity:'''</span><br />
* <span style="color: blue">Measure the width of your fingers to see how closely they are equal to the length of your foot.</span><br />
* <span style="color: blue">Repeat this comparison but using the average width of finger and length of foot from everyone in the class – then ask an adult to do the same.</span><br />
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[[File:Barleycorn.png|right|200px|]]<br />
=====Inches=====<br />
The Romans divided their Foot into 12 Inches, possibly by using their Thumbs as a gauge. In many European languages even today the word for '''inch''' is the same as or derived from the word for '''thumb'''.<br />
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In Medieval England around 1300 it was ordained that: ''3 grains of barley dry and round do make an inch, 12 inches make 1 foot, 3 feet make 1 yard''<br />
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A '''Barleycorn''' is equal to about one third of an Inch and this is still the difference between [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shoe_size#United_Kingdom|English shoe sizes]<br />
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<span style="color: blue">'''Activity:'''</span><br />
* <span style="color: blue">Measure Thumbs to see how close they are to one inch then ask an adult to measure theirs.</span><br />
* <span style="color: blue">Obtain some Barley and devise a way of measuring them to see how close each is to a third of an Inch long.</span><br />
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[[File:BritishYard.png|right|350px|]]<br />
=====Yard=====<br />
Measurements originally were related to parts of the body. They varied considerably and were usually standardised by the local ruler or chieftain, and later by kings. Rods or bars were cut to the correct length and kept in a public place ''(e.g. Temples in Egypt)'' where they could be copied and distributed throughout the community.<br />
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It is thought that a Yard could have been based on the length of a man’s belt but by the time of the '''[[:Category:Middle Ages|Middle Ages]]''' a proper physical standard was needed to ensure fair trade and a standard '''Yard''' existed in the form of an iron bar held at [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/English_units|'''Winchester'''].<br />
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A statute of King Edward I (1272-1307) states: ''It is remembered that the Iron Ulna of our Lord the King contains three feet and no more; and the foot must contain twelve inches''.<br />
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In 1588 Elizabeth I issued a new standard yard which remained the legal British yard for over 300 years until 1824, when the Weights and Measures Act during the reign of George IV, established the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Imperial_units|’’’British Imperial system of units’’’] and the yard was defined as the ''Straight Line or Distance between the Centres of the Two Points in the Gold Studs of the Straight Brass Rod now in the Custody of the Clerk of the House of Commons whereon the Words and Figures "Standard Yard 1760" are engraved''. The British Imperial System remained in use until the adoption of the metric system beginning in 1965 and is still the basis of measurement in America.<br />
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[[Category:Primary]]<br />
[[Category:Topics, Projects and Tasks]]<br />
[[Category:Measuring and Surveying]]</div>DT Onlinehttp://wiki.dtonline.org/index.php/Early_Egyptian_MeasurementsEarly Egyptian Measurements2021-03-10T17:48:15Z<p>DT Online: </p>
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<div>__TOC__<br />
[[File:Rope stretching.jpg|right|800px|A rope being used to measure fields. Taken from the Tomb of Menna]]<br />
=====Introduction=====<br />
Measurement and Surveying was important in '''[[:Category:Ancient Egypt|Ancient Egypt]]''' because the annual floods buried or destroyed boundary markers, which then had to be re-established to check ownership of the fields.<br />
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The Egyptians are thought to have developed the [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Egyptian_units_of_measurement|'''Cubit''']. This measurement was used by many ancient peoples and in the '''[[:Category:Middle Ages|Middle Ages]]'''. It is taken to be the length from the bent elbow to the tips of the fingers – a distance of approximately 18 inches or 450mm. The actual measurement would vary from person to person and so standard '''Cubit''' length rods were made and placed in Temples where they could be accessed for reference.<br />
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=====Cubit Rod=====<br />
[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Measuring_rod#Ancient_Egypt|'''Cubit Rods'''] were made from wood, slate or stone, some with markings to show sub-divisions. The [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cubit#Ancient_Egyptian_royal_cubit|’’’Ancient Egyptian Royal Cubit’’’] was divided into 7 [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Palm_(unit)#Ancient_Egypt|’’’Palms’’’]. A '''Palm''' was based on the width of the palm of the hand.<br />
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[[File:Cubit rod Turin Museum.PNG|center|600px|Cubit rod from the Turin Museum]]<br />
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[[File:PalmDigit.png|right|250px|]]<br />
=====Palm=====<br />
'''Palms''' were further divided into 4 [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digit_(unit)|’’’Digits’’’] based on the width of the human fingers which was a common unit of measurement in ancient times. So four '''Digits''' equal one '''Palm''' and seven '''Palms''' equal one '''Cubit''' - the wooden '''Cubit Rod''', one '''Cubit''' long, was marked in '''Palm''' and '''Digit''' divisions and used by Architects and Surveyors as we now use our modern '''[[Rules and Straight Edges|Rules]]'''.<br />
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=====Cord=====<br />
It is probable that for convenience, there were also Rods made which were several Cubits long and for surveying purposes, Egyptians used a knotted rope or '''Cord''' of 100 Cubits length. Ancient Egyptian surveyors were known as '''Harpedonapata''' or '''rope-stretchers''' and a length of rope longer than 100 Cubits may have been too difficult to pull tight when measuring.<br />
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<span style="color: blue">'''Activity:'''</span><br />
* <span style="color: blue">Make your own '''Cubit Rod''' from a length of '''[[Stripwood Technology Materials|Stripwood]]''' and mark on it '''Palms''' and '''Digits'''. Use measurements from your own arm, or take an average from everyone in your class. Use your '''Cubit Rod''' to measure items of furniture around you in '''Cubits''', '''Palms''', and '''Digits'''.</span><br />
* <span style="color: blue">Take a ball of thick string and tie a knot in it every 10 Cubits to make a '''Cord''' 100 Cubits long. Use this '''Cord''' to measure your garden or school playground in '''Cubits'''</span><br />
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[[Category:Primary]]<br />
[[Category:Topics, Projects and Tasks]]<br />
[[Category:Measuring and Surveying]]<br />
[[Category:Ancient Egypt]]</div>DT Online